Different Types of Evaluation
Once you pinpoint the reason for conducting your evaluation and the target population, you can better determine the most appropriate type of evaluation. This section describes the five major types of evaluations and the appropriate circumstances for their uses.
Evaluation can be classified into different categories in many ways.
Some important classifications are as follows:
1. Placement Evaluation:
Placement evaluation is designed to place the right person in the right place. It ensures the entry performance of the pupil. The future success of the instructional process depends on the success of placement evaluation.Placement evaluation aims at evaluating the pupil’s entry behaviour in a sequence of instruction. In other words the main goal of such evaluation is to determine the level or position of the child in the instructional sequence.We have a planned scheme of instruction for classroom which is supposed to bring a change in pupil’s behaviour in an orderly manner. Then we prepare or place the students for planned instruction for their better prospects. Check for Educational Evaluations in US at UT Evaluators
2. Formative Evaluation:
Formative evaluation is used to monitor the learning progress of students during the period of instruction. Its main objective is to provide continuous feedback to both teacher and student concerning learning successes and failures while instruction is in process.Feedback to students provides reinforcement of successful learning and identifies the specific learning errors that need correction. Feedback to teacher provides information for modifying instruction and for prescribing group and individual remedial work.
Formative evaluation helps a teacher to ascertain the pupil-progress from time to time. At the end of a topic or unit or segment or a chapter the teacher can evaluate the learning outcomes basing on which he can modify his methods, techniques and devices of teaching to provide better learning experiences.The teacher can even modify the instructional objectives, if necessary. In other words, formative evaluation provides feedback to the teacher. The teacher can know which aspects of the learning task were mastered and which aspects were poorly or not at all mastered by pupils. Formative evaluation helps the teacher to assess the relevance and appropriateness of the learning experiences provided and to assess instantly how far the goals are being fulfilled.Thus, it aims at improvement of instruction. Formative evaluation also provides feedback to pupils. The pupil knows his learning progress from time to time. Thus, formative evaluation motivates the pupils for better learning. As such, it helps the teacher to take appropriate remedial measures.
“The idea of generating information to be used for revising or improving educational practices is the core concept of formative evaluation.”
It is concerned with the process of development of learning. In the sense, evaluation is concerned not only with the appraisal of the achievement but also with its improvement. Education is a continuous process.Therefore, evaluation and development must go hand in hand. The evaluation has to take place in every possible situation or activity and throughout the period of formal education of a pupil.
Cronback is the first educationist, who gave the best argument for formative evaluation. According to him, the greatest service evaluation can perform is to identify aspects of the course where education is desirable. Thus, this type of evaluation is an essential tool to provide feedback to the learners for improvement of their self-learning and to the teachers for improvement of their methodologies of teaching, nature of instructional materials, etc.It is a positive evaluation because of its attempt to create desirable learning goals and tools for achieving such goals. Formative evaluation is generally concerned with the internal agent of evaluation, like participation of the learner in the learning process.
3. Diagnostic Evaluation:
It is concerned with identifying the learning difficulties or weakness of pupils during instruction. It tries to locate or discover the specific area of weakness of a pupil in a given course of instruction and also tries to provide remedial measure.
N.E. Gronlund says “…… formative evaluation provides first-aid treatment for simple learning problems whereas diagnostic evaluation searches for the underlying causes of those problems that do not respond to first-aid treatment..When the teacher finds that inspite of the use of various alternative methods, techniques and corrective prescriptions the child still faces learning difficulties, he takes recourse to a detailed diagnosis through specifically designed tests called ‘diagnostic tests’.Diagnosis can be made by employing observational techniques, too. In case of necessity the services of psychological and medical specialists can be utilised for diagnosing serious learning handicaps.
4. Summative Evaluation:
Summative evaluation is done at the end of a course of instruction to know to what extent the objectives previously fixed have been accomplished. In other words, it is the evaluation of pupils’ achievement at the end of a course.The main objective of the summative evaluation is to assign grades to the pupils. It indicates the degree to which the students have mastered the course content. It helps to judge the appropriateness of instructional objectives. Summative evaluation is generally the work of standardised tests.It tries to compare one course with another. The approaches of summative evaluation imply some sort of final comparison of one item or criteria against another. It has the danger of making negative effects. Educational Evaluations in US visit here
This evaluation may brand a student as a failed candidate, and thus causes frustration and setback in the learning process of the candidate, which is an example of the negative effect.The traditional examinations are generally summative evaluation tools. Tests for formative evaluation are given at regular and frequent intervals during a course; whereas tests for summative evaluation are given at the end of a course or at the end of a fairly long period .
5. Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Evaluation:
Two alternative approaches to educational testing that must be thoroughly understood are norm-referenced testing and criterion-referenced testing. Although there are similarities between these two approaches to testing, there are also fundamental differences between norm and criterion referenced testing.
There have been disputations about the relative virtues of norm and criterion-referenced measurements for a long time. However, a fundamental fact is recognised by most of concerned people that norm-referenced and criterion-referenced testing are complementary approaches.
(i) Criterion-Referenced Evaluation:
When the evaluation is concerned with the performance of the individual in terms of what he can do or the behaviour he can demonstrate, is termed as criterion- referenced evaluation. In this evaluation there is a reference to a criterion.But there is no reference to the performance of other individuals in the group. In it we refer an individual’s performance to a predetermined criterion which is well defined.
(ii) Norm Referenced Evaluation:
Norm-referenced evaluation is the traditional class-based assignment of numerals to the attribute being measured. It means that the measurement act relates to some norm, group or a typical performance.It is an attempt to interpret the test results in terms of the performance of a certain group. This group is a norm group because it serves as a referent of norm for making judgements.
Test scores are neither interpreted in terms of an individual (self-referenced) nor in terms of a standard of performance or a pre-determined acceptable level of achievement called the criterion behaviour (criterion-referenced). The measurement is made in terms of a class or any other norm group.Almost all our classroom tests, public examinations and standardised tests are norm-referenced as they are interpreted in terms of a particular class and judgements are formed with reference to the class.